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[Conflict] Qatar has called and China will answer

2020.07.26 22:24 closingfast [Conflict] Qatar has called and China will answer

With the UAE launching an attack into Qatar, China will not stand idly by as one of its allies is bombed by a foreign power--doing so is a sure way to ensure your friends desert you.

The initial response will be aimed at preventing the UAE from achieving their objectives. 36 J-11 air superiority fighters, in a ready state, will scramble in an attempt to stop the attack, aided by a singular KJ-2000 AWACS, which will maintain orbit above Qatar to provide PLAAF forces with up-to-date information on Emirati activity. In addition, our ships currently in Qatar--one Type 052C destroyer and 2 Type 054A frigates--will operate in an air-defense capacity, taking care to ensure that only hostile targets are fired upon, which may limit their effectiveness--though coordination with our AWACS, which, on paper, should have been happening or been trained for, will hopefully solve that problem, or at least limit it. The fact that Pakistani and Qatari forces will also be airborne is not expected to contribute.

Forces Deployed To Defend Qatar:
Air:
Name Type Quantity
Shenyang J-11 Air Superiority 36 [on paper, as many as can be ready in an hour]
KJ-2000 AWACS 1

Naval:
Name Type Quantity
Type 052C Destroyer 1
Type 054A Frigate 2


Following the strike, regardless of the results, we must retaliate. We cannot allow our partners to be militarily bullied, and most show the world both our resolve and, perhaps, our capabilities.

In a general mind that "more is better" and that this provides an opportunity to showcase the capabilities of the PLA, a large-scale [one carrier group], but low-risk, retaliatory strike has been ordered. Upon consultation with the United States, this strike is limited to two targets. First, UAE naval forces outside UAE territorial waters. Second, the island of Socotra, the largest UAE base outside the UAE itself, a strategic position without which the UAE [now that the base at Assab has been destroyed by Eritrean rebels] cannot further conduct the war in Yemen.


Forces Deployed For Retaliatory Strike Against UAE:
From Gwadar:
Name Type Quantity
Type 002 Carrier 1
Type 052C Destroyer 4
Type 054A Frigate 2
Type 093 SSN 2
J-15 Carrier aircraft 32 [3 D variants]
Z-18 Medium helicopter 8
Z-9 Utility helicopter 4
H-6Z Bomber 6

From Qatar:
Name Type Quantity
Type 052C Destroyer 1
Type 054A Frigate 2

From Djibouti:
Name Type Quantity
Type 052C Destroyer 1
Type 054A Frigate 2

Our assets in the Persian Gulf/Hormuz region [from Qatar] will open fire on any UAE vessels that dare to stray outside Emirati territorial waters. The initial raid will be conducted by 6 H-6Z bombers with long-range YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missiles, targeting any Emirati assets that are not in-port or in Emirati territorial waters--there will be a total of 24 missiles available to strike Emirati surface assets. After this, the Chinese vessels based in Qatar will sail out to sea, targeting and destroying any further Emirati attempts to depart their territorial waters west of Hormuz.

Our carrier group will depart Gwadar and rendezvous with the task force based at Djibouti [attacking any UAE vessels encountered en route], after which the combined force--about two days after the initial attack by our reckoning--will attack the UAE installation on Socotra that is now pivotal to its furtherance of the War in Yemen. The initial attack will be by 24 C-803 cruise missiles, fired from the Type 054A frigates, after which air raids will commence from the Shandong. Finally, after the base is judged to be adequately neutralized, the fleet will close to close range and bombard the remaining facilities in it until they are destroyed--including the runway to the airport.

After this, the carrier task group will remain in the theatre until relieved by a new force being dispatched out of Southern China, expected to arrive in 2-3 weeks, at which point it will return to base.
This new task force consists of the following:

Name Type Quantity
Type 075 LHD/Amphibious Assault Ship 1
Type 055 Destroyer 1
Type 052D Destroyer 3
Type 054A Frigate 4
Type 093 SSN 2
Type 901 Fast combat support ship 1
Daisan Dow/Peace Ark Hospital ship 1
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2020.07.23 03:35 AmericanNewt8 [Secret] Aladeen: The Return of Afar

The ARDUF-led Afar insurgency in Eritrea has been proceeding well to date; though it has attracted relatively little international attention. This is about to change. But not in a hasty manner.

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT--IMPORTANT EVEN FOR INSURGENTS:
The first step will be helping the ARDUF improve its organization in Eritrea further, and that will be facilitated by several means. First, ARDUF will, with the aid of Ethiopian intelligence officers and military advisors, establish a measure of what can only be called, for lack of a better word, professional development, for ARDUF leaders, teaching them elementary tactics, how to use modern equipment, how to lead men, and how to locally administrate and provide concrete benefits to the local population through everything from dispute resolution mechanisms to teaching farmers how to plant more scientifically. These will also teach tactics--but not as the West, or even perhaps Ethiopia's own military schools, teach them. A common mistake in Africa is to train ones officers to Western/Modern battle and buy the expensive equipment to outfit a modern army, only to be defeated by insurgents because your army as whole is absolutely terrible at fighting a modern war--this has led to the success of innumerable insurgent groups, particularly in Francophone Africa, and to the famous victories of the Chadians over the much-better equipped Libyans, who first introduced the technical and the modern raiding style of battle that is now familiar across the Sahara. Instead, militant leaders will be taught how to apply lessons from modern conflicts, especially ones involving insurgencies and informal armies, to their unique situation. Most of this professional development can be done in situ, but a handful of the most promising leaders--selected both for intelligence and performance on the battlefield thus far--will be removed to Ethiopia for more in-depth training, and they will be key actors in what is to come.

IN RETROSPECT, NOT A GOOD PLACE TO BUILD A MILITARY BASE:
Assab was once Ethiopia's single largest port, home to its navy and site of nearly 2/3rds of all Ethiopian trade with the outside world--but today, after the Civil War, even with the Ethiopian border once again to a degree open, it is a sleepy coastal town of a little over 20,000 people. It is almost exclusively Afar, though there is a modest Tigray [another Ethiopian ethnic group with sympathies towards Ethiopia] presence. It lies about 43 miles from the Ethiopian border, and roughly the same distance from the border with Djibouti. Until recently, it must have seemed relatively safe for the town's only notable residents--the armed forces of the United Arab Emirates, who have used it as a logistics base for their activities in Yemen and as a black-site prison for Yemeni Civil War POWs. This is, unfortunately for the UAE, no longer going to be the case. The ARDUF is in need of two things. Cash and publicity. Attacking the UAE base will be pivotal in securing both. This operation will be carefully planned and coordinated, relying on a relative handful of the best ARDUF fighters and commanders available, focused on capturing as many Emirati soldiers and detainees as possible, along with achieving maximum shock value. The revelation of the black site prison to the global media will just be the cherry on top of the UAE's no good, very bad year thus far. Even more humiliating will be the ARDUF's ransoming of the Emirati soldiers--Gulf nations are rich and are, according to other terror groups in the region, rather inclined to paying ransoms to free hostages, a fact which will garner the ARDUF significant revenue. ARDUF will even suggest that it may allow the UAE to retain its base provided that the UAE recognizes ARDUF sovereignty over the area and pays it rent for the privilege [or at least that's what Ethiopia will suggest to ARDUF, we aren't sure how they'll feel about the idea]. The UAE may not have much choice in the matter given that their entire interest in Yemen may well collapse if they don't pay up to re-lease the military base.

REMEMBER THE STATE-BUILDING? HOPEFULLY THAT PAYS OFF:
Simultaneously, the ARDUF will begin full-scale operations in far southeast Eritrea to gain control of the region, including--vitally--the border crossings with Djibouti at Dadda'to and Rahayta, and the border crossing with Ethiopia at Bure--the latter being particularly important due to the fact that Ethiopia sponsors the ARDUF, and linking the various Afar regions together for the first time--an event whose closest corollary is the establishment of a more-or-less autonomous Kurdish region in Syria/Iraq. For now; the ARDUF will only seek to assert open control over the regions south and east of Assab, their new de facto capital [assuming the operations succeed]. However, the ARDUF will continue its state-building efforts in the remainder of Afar Eritrea, and also continue engaging in its classic insurgent-style attacks on Eritrean forces [retaining the same characteristics of offering defection as an option to all captured/surrendering soldiers, only executing the generally unpopular and politically-connected officers] in the rest of the Afar region, which stretches to just past the small coastal town of Tio.

With any luck, the Afar will soon have their own proto-state, including a reliable port for Ethiopia, and, shortly thereafter, the Afar, and ultimately the whole of Eritrea, will finally be rejoined into the free nation of Ethiopia.
submitted by AmericanNewt8 to Geosim [link] [comments]


2020.07.21 04:38 BahriNegash Statement by Permanent Mission of Eritrea to the AU (66th Session of the African Commission on Human Rights)

"Eritrea's effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic" is anchored on "the monumental participation & contributions of all sections of society"
Statement by the Delegation of the State of Eritrea 66th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Agenda item 3. “Human Rights Situation in Africa”
18 July 2020
Mr. Chairman!
At the outset, I wish to extend to you, other members of the Commission and all participants in this session my delegation's warm greetings and best wishes for your safety in the prevailing situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. I also would like to congratulate the four newly elected and sworn-in Commissioners and wish them success in their work.
Understandably, this session and the agenda item on the 'Situation of Human Rights in Africa' are focused on the COVID-19 Pandemic which has created deep effects in our continent and the world at large. The pandemic is unprecedented in recent history and is not only challenging global health systems but is accompanied by a deep economic downturn with serious impacts to the ideals of humanity.
The dearth of concrete understanding in regard to its origin, nature and treatment, the ease of transmission has caused panic across the globe. The loss of lives, the destruction of economies and livelihood witnessed in many countries, even in those countries with much better capacities than our continent, is terrifying.
In the few months after the pandemic was detected in Africa, 600,000 people have tested positive and 13,000 people have lost their lives due to COVID 19. The trajectory of the pandemic in our continent remains unknown and is a major challenge for objective consideration.
Under the above circumstances witnessed over the past few months regionally and globally, it has become a necessity that the fight to contain and eliminate the pandemic and save lives remains the priority of priorities in the national human rights agenda. In the face of these, many countries as well as Eritrea, introduced severe preventative measures, including lockdowns, suspension of domestic travel and closure of international borders.
The GOE has implemented, prior to and after the onset of the disease, a raft of preventive measures with increasing intensity in response to the situation on the ground. Accordingly, the High-Level Government Task Force on COVID-19 mobilized, coordinated and organized national capacity which enabled Eritrea to curb the spread of the disease. Similar structures are also functioning up to the community level. The measures include the “stay at home” policy that is gradually and carefully easing but still in force. The population complied with the measures without the need to employ enforcement mechanisms. The strategy also incorporates active tracing and quarantining of immediate contacts of those diagnosed positive for COVID-19.
Eritrea registered its first COVID-19 case on 21 March 2020. Initially, the number reached 39, the overwhelming majority being persons who flew into Eritrea and were put under compulsory quarantine. Thanks to the outstanding dedication and professionalism of the health workers and stakeholders, all the patients recovered and were discharged from the hospitals.
The short respite was interrupted with detection of positive cases in Eritreans who returned to the country irregularly from neighboring countries and were kept in mandatory quarantine in several quarantine posts. To date overall 251 cases have been detected, 155 of whom have fully recovered and discharged. There has been no fatality associated with the disease.
While a comprehensive assessment of the experience in fighting the pandemic is to be made in the future, the following values and factors that date to the experience of the national liberation struggle and consolidated during the nation building process are worth mentioning:
• an integrated social sector strategy that laid the basis for human dignity, betterment of life and development through integrated securities in food, health, water, environment and education • an effective public health system established up to the community level • high level of mobilization, organization and creation of capacity that ensures responsible participation by the people both as beneficiaries and participants • Pragmatic government dedication and approach to national interest and the people
Mr. Chairman,
In the above context, the Government's approach and preliminary road-map for prevention and emergency preparedness was outlined by President Isaias Afwerki during his address to the nation on the occasion of the 29th Independence Anniversary and includes the following:-
  1. Consolidate and enhance long-term capabilities and strategies of prevention;
  2. Develop a mechanism for testing that initially starts with a sample and base-line data, to be extended to cover all citizens inside the country as well as abroad and that will include periodic monitoring and tracking;
  3. Enforcing strict control on movement of people (authorized or irregular) to and from the country;
  4. Upgrade qualitatively and expand spatially Eritrea's research institutions and laboratories;
  5. Strengthen the organizational structure, outreach and equipment of the Health Services;
  6. Develop effective and professional human capital above and beyond other factors;
  7. Upgrade Eritrea's capabilities in the manufacturing of drugs, medical equipment and facilities;
  8. To foster and enhance technical cooperation with various foreign institutions and experts
Mr. Chairman,
Eritrea's effective response to the pandemic was realized due to the monumental participation and contribution by all sections of the Eritrean society, residing in the country and outside. They demonstrated their age-old culture of solidarity and burden sharing by contributing millions of dollars to beef up Government’s preventive capacity. Monetary and in-kind contributions to support vulnerable sections of the society continue to flow over the past five months. While taking the lock-down measures, the Government ensured the unhindered continuation of major developmental projects, the manufacturing sector, agriculture and food production, trucking, mining, and maintaining the safety and security of the country. Moreover, Eritrea has sustained the provision and utilization of essential health services, with no or little reductions in antenatal care, health facility delivery, and immunization etc. during the past months of the pandemic. As of last week, 11th grade and tertiary level students have resumed their studies under strict physical-distancing and sanitary conditions.
Mr. Chairman,
Despite the burdens of the pandemic, countries of the region are consolidating the new dynamics of regional peace, security and development and significant progress has been achieved so far in the short period of time. Moreover, cognizant of the cross-boundary effect that the COVID-19 pandemic has coupled with the challenges of the prevailing locust invasion in the East Africa region, the Eritrean Government is closely working with neighboring countries to address the challenge.
I wish to conclude my statement by reiterating Eritrea's commitment to strengthen constructive engagement and cooperation with the ACHPR.
Thank you
Source: https://www.facebook.com/37329877326/posts/10157363075812327/?sfnsn=mo
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2020.07.20 08:03 hughmcf [NEWS] Ethiopian Empire - Lore & Summary, 1936

ETHIOPIAN EMPIRE - WIKI

Follow the above link for a more stylised presentation of the information below.

The Ethiopian Empire, also known as the Abyssinian Empire or more simply as Ethiopia, is an African monarchy situated primarily along the Ethiopian Highlands in the Horn of Africa region. Ethiopia has been ruled by the Solomonic dynasty since 1270, with Emperor Haile Selassie currently serving as absolute monarch. The nation includes a number of distinct ethnic groups and has historically resisted outright European colonisation, having repeatedly thrown back British and Italian invasions over a period of several decades. Christianity, Islam and traditional animistic beliefs are all practiced by the Ethiopian population, with the Ethiopian Orthodox Church enjoying a dominant status as the state church.
Ethiopia borders the Red Sea and the German colony of Djibouti to its north, the Boqorate of Somalia to its east, the German colony of Mittelafrika to its south and the Sultanate of Egypt to its west. At present, the nation is too preoccupied with domestic concerns to consider an ambitious foreign policy, with international objectives limited to managing Ethiopia's subordinate relationship with the German Empire and the reclamation of the Galla Land from Somalia.

POLITICS AND SOCIETY

Social hierarchy:

Having continuously sustained the apparatuses of state since the 13th Century, Ethiopia remains a predominately feudalistic society with a number of clearly-defined social classes. Most powerful are the shimaglle, Ethiopia's land-owning nobility. Nobles from the shimaglle enjoy varying amounts of influence in the Imperial Court, usually depending on the size of their estates and their personal ties to the Emperor and other nobles. Practically all arable land in Ethiopia is owned by the shimaglle, who employ serfs to work the fields in a system emblematic of pre-renaissance Europe. These serfs constitute another distinct class within Ethiopian society, making up the overwhelming majority of the nation's population. Those civilians who do not directly serve the shimaglle as serfs are usually either artisans or merchants.
Additionally, there is the traditional warrior class, known as the chewa. Men belonging to the chewa will typically serve in the private armies of the shimaglle or in the imperial military. Owing to Ethiopia's underdeveloped economy, most chewa are equipped with traditional weapons rather than modern military equipment.

Imperial politics:

Although the shimaglle enjoy significant influence at a local and regional level, national-level power is wielded by the Emperor and his Imperial Court. As has been tradition for centuries, the Emperor will appoint key noblemen as his ministers, with the most favoured/influential member of the court being appointed Chief Minister (equivalent to Prime Minister). Ethiopian politics are thus dominated less by political ideology and more by the personal loyalties and rivalries of the ruling aristocracy. Chief among these rivalries is that between the progressives (noblemen in favour of modernising and westernising Ethiopia) and the conservatives (noblemen supportive of the status quo). Though originally supported by both factions, Emperor Haile Selassie I has since come down firmly on the side of the progressives, leading painful-but-sustained efforts to modernise Ethiopia's underdeveloped economy and westernise its feudalistic society. This has generated considerable friction between the Emperor and the powerful conservative faction. Modernisation efforts have also heavily indebted the Ethiopian Government to foreign creditors, affording creditors from the German Empire significant political and economic influence across the country. Such is the depth of German influence that many have come to see Berlin as an even more powerful player in Ethiopian politics than the nobility.

Ethnic groups:

Ethiopia is in large part dominated by the Amhara people, who occupy much of the agricultural heartland and fill many positions of power. That said, centuries of rivalry between the region's many distinct ethnicities has created a careful balance in which the Gambela, Harari, Afar, Tigray, Oromo and southern ethnic groups enjoy considerable autonomy. Noblemen from these groups can just as easily participate in the Imperial Court, particularly in the case of the Oromo, who constitute the largest ethnic group in the country. Despite this balance, however, deep-seated ethno-religious tensions persist. This includes a small, Tigray-dominated separatist insurgency in Eritrea, known as the Eritrean National Congress, and an Oromo separatist movement in the highlands, known as the Oromo Independence Front. These insurgencies are small in scale, but could easily spiral out of control if inter-ethnic relations are ever mishandled by the Imperial Court. The same is true for Ethiopia's large Islamic minority, which has for centuries felt isolated and maligned by the Ethiopian Orthodoxy but is yet to organise around a singular political movement.

Slavery:

Despite its nominal abolition in 1924, slavery is still widely practiced across Ethiopia, thanks in large part to support for the institution among Ethiopia's conservative nobility. Slaves typically belong to shimaglle and nominally serve their lord as 'serfs', although in practice they are neither paid nor able to leave their estate. This has led some scholars to argue that slaves constitute a separate class within Ethiopian society, although this interpretation is repudiated by imperial law classing slaves as free serfs. As can be expected, the continued presence of slavery in Ethiopia has severely damaged the nation's reputation abroad.

ECONOMY

Agriculture:

Ethiopia's economy is made up almost exclusively by the agricultural sector, which dominates the nation's international exports and job market. Ethiopia's countless shimaglle-dominated estates produce a number of subsistence crops such as cereals, tef, potatoes, legumes and vegetables, as well as several cash crops, including coffee, sugarcane, khat, enset and sugarcane. Regrettably, an excessive focus on cash crops, combined with severe economic underdevelopment, poor infrastructure and unreliable rainfall has created a food insecurity security in Ethiopia. This has led to several famines in recent memory, with little standing in the way of further famines in the near-future.
Ethiopia's agricultural sector also includes a proud pastoralist tradition, with the nation boasting large herds of cattle, sheep, goats and camels, used to produce meat, milk, leather, cheese and several niche products. Much of this industry is dominated by the informal sector, which often sees pastoralists trade with trusted local partners across national boundaries in Somalia, Mittelafrika and Egyptian Sudan.

German influence:

After years of slow-paced modernisation efforts, what little industry the Ethiopian economy possesses has fallen under the near-total control of German investors, who maintain unrivaled influence in the Imperial Court. This, together with the massive public debt incurred to German creditors and the presence of the Trans-Afrikan railway linking German Mittelafrika to Djibouti via Ethiopia has placed Addis Ababa firmly within the German economic sphere. Germany's influence has proven extremely unpopular in Ethiopia; a nation which prides itself on having never been colonised by the European powers. Progressives decry the national debt and German industrial ownership, seeing these developments as insults to Ethiopian sovereignty and counter-productive to modernisation plans. Conservatives, meanwhile, see the nation's dependence on Berlin as punishment for attempting to modernise, believing that Ethiopia must instead chart an isolation and traditionalist course free from modern industry and overseas interests. Despite these sentiments, however, it is difficult to see an economic future for Ethiopia without continued German influence.

Mining:

Beyond Ethiopia's gargantuan agricultural sector and meagre industrial base, the country also possesses a relatively large mining industry. Mining exports are dominated by gold, with copper mines in the highlands and Eritrea also providing major contributions to the international market.

FOREIGN POLICY

Owing to Ethiopia's 1918 entry into the Weltkrieg on the side of the Central Powers (which saw Ethiopia's re-annexation of Italian Eritrea), Addis Ababa maintains close ties to Berlin. Military cooperation between the two powers remains a priority for Ethiopia, with much of the Ethiopian military equipped with German equipment and Emperor Haile Selassie I even serving as an honourary Generalfeldmarschall in the Deutsches Heer (German Army). High-level military cooperation of this variety is necessary to offset Ethiopia's neighbours in Somalia and Egypt, who are each distrusted by strategists in the Imperial Court. German economic and political cooperation also remains a top priority for the Imperial Court, which must balance Berlin's overriding economic influence, dominant regional presence and extensive lines of credit as part of its day-to-day management of the nation.
Ethiopia maintains frosty relations with Somalia, which occupies large tracts of territory claimed by Ethiopia (known as the Galla Land). Although open war between the two states is always a possibility, a number of crucial factors have combined to keep the peace between the regional powers for the time being. These include Germany's mediating influence in both countries, which has unofficially bound the two rivals within the same economic/political sphere, as well as the relative strength of the Somali military, which despite its low manpower poses a significant threat to Ethiopia. Similarly frosty relations exist between Ethiopia and Egypt, which share a mutual mistrust in the Blue Nile region dating back centuries.

MILITARY

Ethiopia's military, like its society, has remained remarkably feudalistic in nature. Only 4,000 infantrymen in the entire country are trained and equipped to a modern standard. This cohort of elite troops is known as the Kebur Zabagna (Imperial Guard) and reports directly to the Emperor. The Kebur Zabanga includes three battalions of trained regular infantry armed with rifles, machine guns and mortars, one ceremonial battalion known as the Mahal Safari and one heavy machine gun battalion.
Another 40,000 infantry and cavalrymen with varied degrees of training serve in the private armies of the shimaglle, being members of the chewa warrior class. Chewa troops are predominately equipped with outdated rifles and traditional Ethiopian weaponry such as swords, spears and bows, with only a small number equipped with modern weapons of war. The outdated command structure and equipment of the chewa armies is believed to explain Ethiopia's appalling record in the Weltkrieg, which saw Ethiopian troops struggle to defeat a small, isolated outpost of Italian and Tigrayan troops in Eritrea. Significant reform is required if Ethiopia is ever to overwhelm its numerically-weaker but modernised Somali neighbour.
In times of total war, it is estimated that a further 500,000-950,000 Ethiopian men could be rallied to arms by imperial order.
As far as air power is concerned, Ethiopia possesses 22 German post-war interceptors, which are stationed a few kilometres from Addis Ababa and are technically part of the Kebur Zabanga. Due to its crippling debt and the arid, under-populated nature of the Eritrean coastline, Ethiopia is yet to develop a navy.
NOTE: Above information has been built almost entirely out of the Kaiserreich Wiki and relevant Wikipedia articles. Edits for formatting.
submitted by hughmcf to WeltkriegPowers [link] [comments]


2020.07.16 00:22 Dibbu_mange A Brief introduction to African Socialism

At the end of the Second World War, Europe realized that their hold on their colonial holdings was slipping fast. Most of them began to draw up plans to gradually grant independence. The people within these countries however had different priorities. They saw their chance to break from the colonial masters and took it. In 1950, only Egypt, Liberia, Ethiopia, and South Africa could be considered independent, by 1965 the vast majority of nations were on their own. Some flourished, some languished, but almost all improved with their newfound freedom.
At this time, the world was locked in a struggle between Western Democracy and Communist Dictatorship. With little warning, a new theater opened in the Cold War. Africans were given the decision of who to side with. As an enemy of their former masters, the Soviet Union made a natural ally, and Socialism's anti-imperial (theoretic) stance appealed to people in post imperial regions of the world. Since independence, seventeen African nations have had a government which self-identified as socialist, six of those as Marxist-Leninist. Like Africa itself, socialist movements in the continent were varied and diverse. Ranging from self described socialist Nelson Mandella becoming celebrated world wide for his devotion to peace and equality to Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam, whose violence and economic mismanagement killed thousands.
The purpose of this post is to describe the ideological origins and tenets of African socialism, with a look at what makes it distinct from mainstream Communist movements. On this map red shows those states which identified as Marxist, yellow shows those which identified as with a variety of other forms of socialism, and green shows those which more closely fall under the Arab Socialist movement and will not be discussed here.

Ideological Origins

Broadly speaking, African Socialism drew inspiration from two main sources, the traditional body of socialist literature and that of the Pan-African movement.
Socialism
Both the ideological tenets of socialism and the practical concerns socialist nations played a role in African nations adopting socialism. Most of the nations of Africa were in a struggle for freedom from capitalist European countries and found a natural ally in the Soviet Union. Following WWII, it was in many ways a binary choice to side with the US or USSR. Those who led rebellions or coups against US backed leaders had few options other than the USSR.
Political concerns aside, there were many reasons why socialism was ideologically attractive to educated Africans. Socialism is at its base revolutionary. "Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries unite!” With even a cursory glance at Marx, it doesn't take much imagination to see why people oppressed for decades would turn to him.
The anti-Imperial rhetoric of socialism (regardless of the actual aggression of the USSR and PRC) was another motivating factor. In this case, I point to Vladimir Lenin's Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism. In this work, Lenin points towards imperialism as a symptom of the capitalist system. However, one of the reasons this work remained applicable after the collapse of most overseas empires is due to his characterization of imperialism. One example he gives in the book speaks of US domination of the Argentine beef industry. According to Lenin, though the US never carved out a concession area or installed a governor general, they used economic power to dominate the industry and exert control over the country. This characterization rang true for many people who looked at the efforts taken by former colonial powers looking to retain their economic stakes in their old colonies.
One of the problems socialists face in implementing their policy is that Orthodox Marxism is heavily based on the conditions of 19th century Western Europe, and when applied outside of those conditions, thinkers need to reconcile the inconsistencies with the conditions on the ground. While we will look at how various African leaders adapted the ideology, one sub-ideology which played a major role in African Socialism was Maoism. Orthodox Marxism focuses heavily on a revolution based around industrial workers. Early 20th century China, much like post-colonial Africa had little in the way of industry. Mao re conceptualized the idea of the proletariat to include peasant farmers and made the revolution as agrarian as it was industrial. For example, the first president of Socialist Madagascar released an ideology book heavily inspired by Mao's Red Book. China also served as an alternative source of support in the event of a conflict with Russia; Somalia received aid from the PRC when they were at war with Soviet aligned Ethiopia.
Pan- African Movement
The Pan-African movement did not solely influence the African Socialist movement. In fact, almost all post-colonial governments took inspiration from many of the tenets of movement. Nor were all the central figures socialists, indeed Emperor Halie Salassi of Ethiopia was about as far from socialist as could be. However there was a degree of mutual influence in a number of places. The start of it can be traced to Jamaican thinker Marcus Garvey. The Pan-African colors and the icon of the Black Star both came from him. Kwame Nkrumah mentioned him directly as an influence. This remained on the nationalist and pan-nationalist side of African socialism. This and racial empowerment remained a constant theme in African socialism, with many African thinkers rejecting class reductionism. African's tended to be acutely aware of the role of race in world politics and used it in conjunction with class and capitalist interest to explain the world.
Another major thinker was American W. E. B. du Bois. One of the founding members of the NAACP and author of one of the first sociological works about African Americans, Du Bois is one of the most important figures of the American Civil Rights Movement. Du Bois was in reality a Social Democrat, who often saw world communist governments as a means to an end for black people. In Socialism and the American Negro, he referred to the New Deal as a America's foray into Socialism. Though a stalwart supporter of democracy he visited Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin personally. He was a strong opponent of colonization and spoke to young leaders in the 1945 Pan-African congress. There he met future President of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah. He would become a mentor to Nkrumah and move to Accra in his final days.

Non-Marxist-Leninist Socialism

Many of the most interesting and successful movements in Africa were non-Marxist-Leninist. They took local beliefs and attitudes and molded socialism to fit them. These were incredibly diverse, ranging from forms of social democracy to far more authoritarian structures. The leaders ranged from educated elites to guerrilla leaders. The first socialist governments sprang up at independence and continued through the Cold War. These are some of the more notable ones.
Consciencism
Few other thinkers have had near the lasting influence on African politics and philosophy as Kwame Nkrumah. Born to a poor family in the British Gold Coast, Nkrumah was sent to school by his family where he excelled. Interested in Politics and Philosophy, he saved money to pay to visit the United States. He worked menial jobs to put himself through school at Lincoln University and University of Pennsylvania. In the US he became close to expat and American leftists as well as enjoying African American culture. After graduating he went to the London School of Economics. This is where he began political organizing. He returned to the Gold Coast where he founded the Convention People's Party. When the British began increasing local rule, his party swept. When the British did not meet the demands of the Ghanian people, he became a champion of the people with his down to earth nature and organization of general strikes. When Ghana was given full independence, he was the overwhelming choice.
A strict empiricist, Nkrumah sought to make an organic political philosophy that was designed to change as the material needs of the country changed. He determined that the welfare of the individual was the most important concern of the government and society. It was from this lens that he criticized capitalism, contending that it reduced man to a means to achieving the goal of profit. He pointed to traditional African values, Islam, and European influences as the three ideological tides that shaped Africa. The latter two he condemned, though admitted their merits where he saw them (such as the French education system), and gave qualified approval to the first. African society was to be, in spirit but not practice the driver of society. This meant that pan-Africanism and historical study were to be focused on, but the actual institutions such as tribalism, traditional monarchy, and class hierarchies were to be abandoned.
This is where socialism came into Nkrumah's Consciencism. It was not out of devotion to Marxist thinking, but out of a belief that socialist economic structures would be the most effective way of leading the country to prosperity. In a 1967 address he gave in Egypt he stated "Socialism is not spontaneous. It does not arise of itself. It has abiding principles according to which the major means of production and distribution ought to be socialized if exploitation of the many by the few is to be prevented; if, that is to say, egalitarianism in the economy is to be protected. Socialist countries in Africa may differ in this or that detail of their policies, but such differences themselves ought not to be arbitrary or subject to vagaries of taste. They must be scientifically explained, as necessities arising from differences in the particular circumstances of the countries themselves." To Nkrumah, Socialism was not prescriptive, but rather a process where one used communal ownership as needed to create a better society. He was a believer in the idea of scientific socialism in believing that socialism came from the natural needs of the people, rather than an ideological devotion.
Ujamaa
If Nkrumah was a product of the study of Philosophy, Julius Nyerere was a product of the study of anthropology and history. Unlike Nkrumah, Nyerere was the product of elite lineage. His father was a chief who earned the favor of both the German, and later British Administrations in Tanganyika. He was chosen by the British to receive education to be a local leader and studied at Makerere College before finishing his post graduate work at University of Edinburgh. Upon returning, he founded the Tanganyika African National Union, which pushed for independence from the UK through non-violent protest.
His philosophy of Ujamaa, meaning familyhood in Swahili, became the guiding ideology of the party and independent Tanganyika (and Tanzania after their unification with Zanzibar). In this ideology, Nyerere posits that socialism is the natural state of African people. Before the introduction of Western influences, African people lived in an equal and communitarian society. While he admits the existence of elites he countered that the relative equality of means meant that there was no comparison to modern economic structures. For Africans to be prosperous, they had to return to the social structures as well as the spirit of pre-colonial Africa, while accepting modernizations that would benefit the common man.
He posited that African society had a natural social value attached to work, and this work was done, not to the benefit of a capitalist elite, but to the benefit of society, thus with the fruits of labor belonging to society, they could be considered socialist. Through a return to these structures, they could have a socialist society that was structured on the needs of Africans, rather than those of 19th century Europeans. He regarded Marxists as rigid and dogmatic, stating that, "The works of Marx and Lenin are regarded as holy writ… We find them condemning others actions because they do not accord with what the 'priests of scientific socialism' have decided is the true meaning." His ontology marked the community as the basic unit. He believed in socialism through consent of the people, but not necessarily through democracy.

Marxist-Leninism

Marxist-Leninist nations in Africa tend to fill a different niche that those of non-Marxist states. Non-Marxist states tended to grow from movements within the countries with a locally based variant of socialism guiding the development of government structures. Marxist states on the other hand tended to come from the geopolitical needs of the nation. They tended to lean heavily into the support of the Soviet Union or People's Republic of China. These governments tended to be criticized by Orthodox Marxists both within the countries and abroad for simply slapping a Marxist aesthetic on a run of the mill authoritarian state. This is not universal, and depended on the leader and movement. Thomas Sankara (referred to as the African Che Guevara) is celebrated by leftists for his attempts to organize Burkina Faso, whereas his successor Blaise Compaoré simply co-opted Marxist symbolism until the end of the Cold War when it was dropped entirely. The two states I will profile show a best and worst case for African Marxists.
Benin
Nothing I write would be complete without me mentioning Benin somewhere. The Republic of Dahomey gained its freedom from France August 1st, 1960. At that time Hubert Maga, a school teacher turned politician from the North was named first president. Benin is divided into three broad super-cultural groups (though there are a total of 64 ethnic groups). The Fon in the South, the Yoruba in the East, and the Bariba and other Muslims in the North. The Maga government was soon overthrown and the country rapidly switched between a number of governments, each dedicated to giving as much as possible to their constituent area before being removed from office.
This changed in 1972 when a young army officer named Mathieu Kerekou led a successful coup. Kerekou was different in the sense that he had no real ties to any of the political families that had been competing for power. He also ended the system of clientism that had defined Dahomeyan politics to that point (though some contend he showed bias against the Fon. Strongly nationalistic, Kerekou made his hatred for the French clear early on, pointing to them as the cause of many of the country's problems and the patron of the old regime.
In 1974, Kerekou changed the country's name from the Republic of Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin and formally adopted Marxism-Leninism as the guiding ideology of the nation. Oil reserves and refineries as well as the banking system were rapidly nationalized and Kerekou made overtures to international communist nations for aid. Austerity programs were also quickly ended. The North Koreans were particularly close allies. Curiously, Kerekou worked to retain warm relations with the United States. Peace Corps remained in operation through his entire presidency and working in the American embassy was considered a strong stepping stone.
The practical effects for the average Beninese person varied from urban to village. Local leaders were required to be members of the People's Revolutionary Party, and extreme corruption and inefficiency meant that few resources radiated outside of population centers. Instilled with a strong labor union tradition during French occupation, the national labor movement was consolidated into a single approved union that was basically mandated to follow government orders. Unionized workers as well as students were the chief opponents of the regime and faced significant surveillance and harassment.
This started to change in the mid 80s as it became clear that the regime's economic reforms weren't working. Benin was lagging behind its neighbors Ghana, Togo, and Nigeria. On top of this, student groups and workers in unofficial unions were demanding change. Simultaneously, the election of Francois Mitterrand in France opened a new era in Franco-Beninese relations, shifting the nation back to Western alignment away from the moribund USSR. Under mounting pressure, Kerekou agreed to a constitutional referendum and free elections. Upon his loss, he gracefully stepped down in 1991, but was reelected in 1996. Having dropped Marxism, he led his second term as a moderate liberal, doing little to harm the economic and political reforms of the early 90s.
Ethiopia
Ethiopia, on the other hand, faced the fullest horror of Communism and likely suffered to a similar extent to Ukraine and China. In 1970, the Solomonic Dynasty leading the Empire of Ethiopia was one of the oldest royal houses in the world dating back to 1270 and drawing its lineage back to the Biblical King Solomon. Their last Emperor was Halie Selassie, celebrated among Pan-Africanists as one of the only African leaders to resist colonization. Though celebrated by the diaspora, Selassie's rule was authoritarian and secretive. In 1973, a famine hit Ethiopia. Rather than petition for aid Selassie covered it up, and only accepted aid on the contingency that it was given in secret. The inaction of the Emperor prompted a revolutionary council known as the Derg to take over.
This council quickly moved to numerous industries. Eritrean, Tigre, and Somali nationalists took advantage of the situation to launch offensives against the government. When the Carter Administration warned the Derg to cease the human rights violations they were committing in the crackdown, they cut ties with Washington and invited East-German and Soviet military advisors. In the Tigre region, the Ethiopian military embarked on a scorched earth offensive to quell the rebellion. Using such tactics in a nation with food security concerns was probably ill-advised. The offensive in the North consumed around two thirds of the national budget.
The problems the Derg had created were compounded in 1983. In 1982, the rains failed and there was risk of another great famine. Having become an international pariah due to the extreme violence of Derg forces, the international community was reluctant to give aid and the Reagan administration lobbied heavily against it as part of his campaign to halt Communism in the Horn of Africa. When the famine hit in earnest, the Derg mobilized to create collective farms. These farms were incredibly inefficient, consuming 82% of imported fertilizer while contributing only 15% of grain production. To staff these farms, people from offending areas, particularly Tigre were forcibly removed from their homes and shipped to location. Africa Watch estimates that around 50,000 people died on these farms alone, comparing conditions to the Ukrainian farms in the days of Stalin. In total, as many as 1.2 million people were killed, 2.5 million displaced, with Human Rights Watch estimating that around half could be attributed to government actions.

Conclusion

Socialism is a phenomenon that struck the African continent in many ways across the Cold War era and beyond. Its incarnations were as diverse as the groups it affected. This is by no means an exhaustive look at African socialism, but simply a chance for the reader to find a starting place for further study and give context to an under studied part of the world. Indeed, there were many important people and thinkers left out, such as Cheikh Anta Diop, Walter Rodney, and Siad Barre. Please let me know in the comments what if anything you would like to learn more about. If you found the philosophical analysis or historical fact more interesting, I would be happy to write more about it.
Sources African Socialism Revisited- Kwame Nkrumah
Ujamma – The Basis of African Socialism- Julius K. Nyerere
Drought, War, and the Politics of Famine in Ethiopia and Eritrea- Edmond J. Keller
Applying the weapon of theory: comparing the philosophy of Julius Kambarage Nyerere and Kwame Nkrumah- Tomáš František Žák
Three African social theorists on class struggle, political liberation, and indigenous culture : Cheikh Anta Diop, Amilcar Cabral, Kwame Nkrumah - Charles Simon-Aaron
Socialism and the American Negro- W. E. B. Du Bois
Benin- Chris Allen
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2020.07.07 21:17 ThrowRAbadteeth I've (28F) just met a great guy (34M). Unfortunately, he has poor oral hygiene and I'm a germaphobe.

Hi all! I'm reaching out for advice as my friends haven't been very helpful. I've been single for a very long time and I think they want the best for me and are excited that I've finally met someone. They know I have a combination of bad luck and self-sabotage that makes things difficult, so they're encouraging me about him in a place where I've hit a hurdle. He (let's call him Ron) and I are very early in, and have been distance dating. I'm not getting any instinctual bad feelings as I would with others I've dated. Ron's very kind and we both have dogs and we don't live very far from one another, etc....It's great! Unfortunately, Ron has really bad teeth. I've told my friends this, and they've jokingly said, "Just wait a few months in and then buy him white strips."
Unfortunately this is deeper than a yellow teeth issue. Ron has food all in-between his teeth and has a missing tooth where the area is black (after we take off our masks, prior to us eating). It's been fine for now since we are distance dating, but I know me. What I fear (and where I may self-sabotage) is that I'm going to put up a wall in getting to know him because I'm a bit of a germaphobe and would rather let him do his thing than potentially embarrass him by calling out his poor hygiene.
My aversion to gross or dirty things can strongly deter me from having an appetite at times. I also usually can't get on with what I'm doing until it's handled and out of my sight. An example that comes to mind is when I went out with friends for Eritrean food. The combined imagery of us all hands-in for food (you eat without utensils) and my friend's boyfriend chewing with his mouth open--I couldn't do it. Stomach was churning. They ordered more and I asked if I could have the first bites before they all started and passed it off solely as not being able to handle them all touching what I was eating. Very timely sentiments now, haha.
On my last date with Ron, I casually brought up my last relationship with a controlling ex. Out of a list of things I was telling Ron that this ex would micromanage me on, in the middle I mentioned that he'd ask if I flossed my teeth. I wasn't looking directly at Ron when I called out this list, but in my peripheral, I saw him close his mouth and run his tongue across his teeth. So he knows! He clearly knows. (And side note, this controlling ex is where I have fears and hesitations on expressing myself and asking things of others in a way as not to appear controlling myself).
I think where I may get any sort of instinctual bad vibes is that...he's 34. I understand aversions and fears of the doctor. But how best do I tell a 34-year-old that he should brush his teeth? Is having to do that a bad sign?

tl;dr: I'm recently dating an amazing guy but he has awwwful oral hygiene. Is there any way I can kindly suggest to him to brush his teeth before I lose interest due to my germaphobia?
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2020.05.29 18:14 AkashaoftheDamned Stop Stigmatizing Virginity

Some of us are virgins in our 20s or older not because we are religious, prudes, asexual or crazy but maybe just maybe we would like to do it with someone who respects and cares for us as people and not objects for their sexual pleasure.
Edit: I'm a virgin for several reasons. One i cannot be aroused by someone I have no emotional intimacy with. I rather sleep with a old friend of mine, even with the bad history we had, then a man I know knows nothing about me and will never be interested in how I feel what I have to say.
  1. 99.9 of men who approached me wanted to sleep with me without even knowing my name while claiming to want a relationship. But their insistence on sexualizimg the conversation and going to their house so early in dating revealed their true intentions.
  2. I am a introvert and I had very few if any friends throughout my life until fairly recently when I joined a commune. Even then my social network is pretty small and that translates to less opportunities to meet men thay may share my interests in real life. So I have to go through the trash on online apps in hopes of finding that one gem of a guy out of 100s that is interesting, interested in me and respects my boundaries and is not interested in hooking up. It's very hard to find.
Edit 2: I am so happy at how many people resonated with this. Its great to be reminded you are not alone and a freak of nature, even when the society around you treats you like one for being a virgin. I never expected the amount of responses and support I got from people lol. Also, positive note I met a guy today and he was very chill, respectful. Maybe because he is Eritrean ? I got no idea lol but it was a good 4 hour walk and talk.
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2020.05.28 21:57 PotentialSubsBot Top Potential Subreddits: r/unexpectedSeinfield with 114, r/JordenPeterson with 81 and r/burdurlands with 76 upvotes

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2020.05.26 15:26 yoelymole Do you believe the stance on dating outside of culture will change?

I'm an Eritrean living in the UK and it seems to be very common occurrence for habesha people to date those from other ethnicities. However, many of the elders still cling on to their traditional and conservative beliefs from back home. Do you think that with time this attitude will change?
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2020.05.04 18:05 Mel0n_Collie [OC] What if every world cup team had the same population? - Group F

Mayday! Mayday! A new group is upon us! Welcome back to this alternative world cup as we uncover the sixth group of eight in this fascinating made-up tournament, well, fascinating to me atleast.
My writing was briefly interrupted this morning as amidst all this major historical event malarkey, the UK sneakily changed the May bank holiday to friday leading me to run down the road in my dressing gown for a bin man I didn’t expect. Artists interpretation
I’ve since wiped the stale beer and bin juice off of myself to bring you what was collectively the most laborious group to research, but before I excite you too much, here are the groups so far
Group A, Group B, Group C, Group D, Group E
With this installment falling on May the fourth, you may want to read them in the correct order of D, E, F, A, B, C. Today’s edition begins however, with the revenge of the Sikh’s.
Punjab
3 Indian States (Punjab, Haryana, Rajastan), 1 Pakistani Province (Punjab)
Population (millions): 231.65
From the region that brought you Mundian To Bach Ke via Coventry, we bring you one of the better teams of a very bad Indian bunch.
Punjab is a Persian word meaning land of five rivers, unfortunately as far as the Football is concerned, the region tends to meander more than it flows.
The Pakistani half of the region hogs nine of 16 Pakistan Premier League clubs, denoting sporting superiority to the province's peers, of whom produced zero players for Greater Khorosan’s shortlist.
The ‘Pak Shaheen’ send an octet of failed cricketers to a side where the non-punjabi states of Haryana and Rajastan are never-presents
Goalkeepers Birthplace FM20 Value Age
Gurpreet Singh Sandhu IND Bengaluru GK Punjab 46 0.04 28
Amrinder Singh IND Mumbai City GK Punjab 30 0.02 26
Defenders
Sandesh Jhingan IND Kerala Blasters CB Punjab 43 0.05 26
Harmanjot Singh Khabra IND Bengaluru RB Punjab 26 0.02 31
Answar Ali IND Punjab CB Punjab 24 0.02 35
Gurwinder Singh IND East Bengal CB Punjab 21 0.01 34
Shahbaz Younas PAK Pakistan Army CB Punjab (P) 17 0.01 24
Naveed Ahmed PAK Pakistan Navy CB Punjab (P) 17 0.01 27
Ali Uzair PAK WAPDA RB Punjab (P) 21 0.01 23
Faisal Iqbal PAK National Bank LB Punjab (P) 17 0.01 27
Midfielders
Gurjinder Singh IND SYNKA CM Punjab 33 0.01 33
Germanpreet Singh IND Chennaiyin CDM Punjab 24 0.02 23
Hitesh Sharma IND Hyderabad CM Punjab 24 0.02 22
Bikramjit Singh IND Odisha CDM Punjab 22 0.02 27
Akashdeep Singh IND Minerva Punjab LM Punjab 21 0.01 26
Ahmed Faheem PAK WAPDA RW Punjab (P) 18 0.01 25
Muhammad Adil PAK Khan Research CAM Punjab (P) 21 0.01 27
Rizwan Asif PAK Khan Research RW Punjab (P) 18 0.01 30
Forwards
Balwant Singh IND ATK ST Punjab 30 0.02 33
Manvir Singh IND Goa ST Punjab 30 0.02 24
Ansar Abbas PAK Pakistan Army CF Punjab (P) 19 €0.01 31
Ajay Singh IND Gokula Kerala ST Punjab 17 €0.01 31
Averages/Totals 25 0.37 27.86363636
Gurpreet Singh Sandhu is India’s number one between the sticks, and statistically exceeds the credentials of his teammates here. In September of last year Singh made an incredible 20 saves against Qatar in a completely unexpected 0-0 draw, this high-profile MOTM performance combined with Winning the ISL in 2019 earned him the Golden Glove award and the Arjuna Award for special achievement in Indian sport.
The best offering from west of the border is young fullback Ali Uzair, unfortunately that’s more of an emphasis on the lack of quality from Pakistan.
This uninspiring side has more ammature level ‘Singh’ing than a Saturday night reality show, this side has little to no X factor, it transpires that Punjab does NOT have talent.
West Indonisia & Singapore
25 most westernly Indonesian states, Singapore
Population (millions): 247.71
Aside from the aforementioned Pakistan, Indonesia is the closest sovereign nation to the target population, slightly over hitting the mark, Australia and co. nicked the West of this astronomical archipelago.
Much like many of the south-eastern countries, football is arguably Indonesia’s most popular sport along with Badminton. Playing under the historical pseudonym of the Dutch East-Indies, the Garuda were the first Asian team to participate in the World Cup in 1938, with a 6-0 defeat to Hungary their only appearance to date in the tournament.
With a substantial talent pool and a love for the game, it is frustrating that they have yet to produce a player that has made any sort of impact on the game. The man attempting to remedy that is obviously… Dennis Wise? Yes, bizarrely in what in one of the best Footballing series to come out of Youtube ‘The Search for Indonesia’s first wonderkid’ follows ‘Garuda Select’, a squad of 16/17 year old Indonesians scouted and managed by former England teammates Dennis Wise and Des Walker who give them the opportunity of spending a year in the English development system. Devised by the Indonesian FA, It’s a fascinating and unique look at the measures taken to develop the game.
A game between Garuda Select and Walsall under-17 was viewed live in Indonesia by 4.5 million people, personifying an incomparable desperation for a football team to be proud of. The now 18 year old striker Bagus Kahfi looks to be the valedictorian of the class of 2020, commanding rumours of a groundbreaking English club contract.
For now the only thing the current Indonesia squad has in common with England is that they seem adverse to being in Europe. The metropolitan super-city of Singapore joins on to the side, providing a spine of players to the squad.
Goalkeepers Birthplace FM20 Value Age
Andritany Ardhiyasa IDN Persija Jakarta GK Jakarta 39 €0.02 28
Hassan Sunny SNG Army United GK Singapore 41 €0.03 36
Defenders
Fachrudin Aryanto IDN Madura United CB Klaten 41 €0.02 31
Hansamu Yama IDN Persebaya Surabaya CB Mojokerto 41 €0.02 25
Ricky Fajrin IDN Bali United LB Semarang 34 €0.01 24
Firza Andika IDN Tubize LB Medan 40 €0.04 20
Juni Gede Antara IDN Bhayangkara RB Gianyar 36 €0.04 24
Gabin Kwan IDN Bali United RWB Denpasar 38 €0.04 24
Safuwan Bahadrudin SNG Selangor CB Singapore 42 €0.05 28
Andy Setyo IDN Persikabo CB Pati 33 €0.02 22
Midfielders 0
Stefano Lilipaly IDN Bali United CAM Amsterdam, NED 49 €0.08 30
Asep Berlian IDN Madura United CDM Bogor 37 €0.02 29
Bayu Pradana IDN Barito Putera CDM Salatiga 40 €0.02 29
Febri Hariyadi IDN Persib Bandung RW Bandung 48 €0.07 24
Septian David IDN PSIS Semarang LW Semarang 38 €0.02 23
Sani Rizki IDN Bhayangkara CM Bhayangkara 36 €0.02 22
Hendro Siswanto IDN Arema CM Tuban 41 €0.02 30
Ikhsan Fandi SNG Raufoss CM Singapore 42 €0.01 21
Forwards 0
Irfan Bachdim IDN PSS Sleman ST Amsterdam, NED 44 €0.06 31
Lerby Eliandry IDN Bali United ST Samarinda 38 €0.05 28
Ilija Spasojević IDN Bali United ST Bar, Montenegro 49 €0.02 32
Egy Maulana IDN Lechia Gdansk ST Medan 49 €0.12 19
Averages/Totals 41 €0.80 26.36363636
While Bagus doesn’t quite have the mileage to make the squad yet, sophomore Egy Maulana could be just as prosperous. The teenager has begun making appearances in the Polish Ekstraklasa scoring 13 goals in 16 games for the reserve side.
Native league champions Bali United are responsible for almost a quarter of the squad; formed in 2015, this favourable away day is already banging on the door of Champions league qualification.
Belgian bad boy Radja Nainggolan is half-Indonesian and idolised for being so. Despite already commanding 30 caps for ‘Les Diables Rouges’ before being outcast by Roberto Martinez, if there was some way for the midfielder to change allegiances, the manager would probably let him light up a cigarette in the centre-circle if he wanted to.
Far East and WCUS
Japan, South Korea,10 US States (Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Hawaii, Alaska)
Population (millions): 241.08
By far the most strained geographical combination, this franken-side is of intermediate quality but got an absolute touch in the draw, putting them as favourites.
From K-pop to California, this region could have simply been named ‘pop-culture land’, although the star quality is monopolised by a smiley Spurs striker who is projecting a career that may well already crown him Asia’s greatest ever export.
Japan and South Korea are Asia’s most tenacious territories when it comes to World Cup qualification. A debut appearance in 1998 for the Samurai Blue sparked a sensational start to the 21st century, qualifying for the last six iterations of the tournament reaching the knockout stages on three occasions, winning the Asian Cup thrice during this spell. The talismanic talents of Cha Bum and Park Ji Sung dominate the saga of South Korea’s qualification streak that spans back to 1986, although bizarrely continental bragging rights have evaded them for 60 years.
The west coast of the United States buffers the region's populous power, hoping tactics won’t get lost in translation, four yanks make their way East.
Goalkeepers Birthplace FM20 Value Age
Cho Hyun Woo KOR Ulsan Hyundai GK Seoul 61 €0.84 27
Stefan Frei USA Seattle Sounders GK Alstatten 61 €1.80 33
Defenders
Aaron Long USA NY Red Bulls CB Oak Hills, CA 62 €4.00 26
Gen Shoji JAP Toulouse CB Kobe 64 €4.50 26
Yuto Nagatomo JAP Galatasaray LB Saijo, Ehime 63 €2.70 32
Kim Min Jae KOR Beijing Guoan CB Tongyeong, Gye 62 €10.20 22
Maya Yoshida JAP Southampton CB Nagasaki 64 €9.10 31
Makoto Hasebe JAP Frantfurt CB Fujieda, Shizuoka 68 €0.66 35
Hiroki Sakai JAP Marsielle RB Kashiwa 69 €7.50 29
Deandre Yedlin USA Newcastle RWB Seattle, WA 64 €14.90 26
Midfielders
Weston McKennie USA Schalke CM Fort Lewis, WA 67 €7.50 21
Daichi Kamada JAP Frankfurt CM Ehime 63 €4.00 23
Shinji Kagawa JAP Real Zaragoza CAM Kobe 70 €11.90 30
Shoya Nakajima JAP Porto LM Tokyo 69 €15.40 25
Takashi Inui JAP SD Eibar LM Omihachiman 69 €12.30 31
Takumi Minamino JAP Liverpool RM Osaka 72 €33.40 26
Kangin Lee KOR Valencia CAM Incheon 63 €12.15 19
Ki Sueng Yueng KOR Newcastle CM Gwangju 63 €2.40 30
Forwards
Heung Min Son KOR Tottenham LF Gangwon 80 €62.00 27
Hwang Hee Chan KOR RB Salzburg ST Gangwon 68 €2.90 23
Yoshinori Muto JAP Newcastle ST Tokyo 62 €11.00 27
Yuya Osako JAP Werder Bremen CF Kagoshima 66 €5.70 29
Averages/Totals 66 €237.78 27.04
The affiliate clubs of this team read like an interrailing checklist; the side sprinkles across a predominantly European list of heavy-to-welter-weight clubs.
Stefan Frei likely tends the goal despite hailing from Germany, while in front of him are the familiar faces of Yoshida and Sakai who both have an eye for goal.
Takashi Inui was the star of a recent World Cup campaign that cruelly resulted in Japan almost reaching the quarter finals, losing to Belgium after being 2-0 up in one of the year's most enthralling matches. The forward thinking midfielder may play parallel to Liverpool’s newest acquisition Minamino who is finding his feet at the European champions.
The region has some explosive young talent in the way of Valencia’s Kangin Lee, the 19 year old just made the cut as Barcelona’s Takeufa Kubo is one year his junior but has a higher ceiling for future stardom, but for now his talent’s are still as raw as a California sushi roll.
I can’t finish this section without nodding to the almost boringly impressive ability of Heung-Min Song. A Champions League finalist and the first Asian player to score 50 Premier League goals, ‘Sonaldo’ is the Salah of South Korea and the unofficial eighth member of BTS, his world-class abilities will undoubtedly see him have a lot of fun in this group.
East Africa
Tunisia, Libya, Sudan, South Sudan, Chad, CAR, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Niger
Population (millions): 254.59
The poorest African region in more ways than one, it is completely forgivable that this squad doesn’t compete with their continental counterparts.
The inclusion of Tunisia is greatly beneficial as the Magreb moguls have five qualifications to their name, combine that with the rest of the region and East Africa has… five qualifications to their name.
Ethiopia features less in this squad than it’s 109 million population demands. The national team won a home Cup of Nations in 1962 but have qualified just once in the last 37 years.
Troubled nation Somalia does not feature in this squad, probably because the players keep insisting they are the captain.
Goalkeepers Birthplace FM20 Value Age
Kassaly Daouda NIG Katsina United GK Dosso 52 €0.04 36
Jemal Tassew ETH Fasil Kenema GK Awassa 55 €0.13 30
Defenders
Herve Lybohy NIG Nancy CB Bouake, Ivory Coast 57 €0.72 36
Mohamed Drager TUN Paderborn RB Frieberg 57 €1.10 23
Dylar Bronn TUN FC Metz CB Cannes 61 €1.80 24
Yohan Benalouane TUN Notts Forest CB Bagnols-sur-ceze 62 €1.60 33
Oussama Haddadi TUN Ettifaq CB Tunis 60 €3.80 28
Aymen Abdennour TUN Kayserispor CB Sousse 60 €3.30 30
Eyob Zambataro ETH Atalanta LWB Addis Ababa 52 €0.30 20
Mohamed Ali Khider SDN Al Merrikh SC RWB Khartoum 56 €0.02 35
Midfielders
Ahmad Benali LBY Crotone CM Manchester 61 €1.80 28
Wahbi Khazri TUN St Ettiene CAM Ajaccio 70 €11.30 29
Geoffrey Kondogbia CAR Valencia CDM Nemours, France 73 €25.00 27
Naim Sliti TUN Ettifaq LM Marsielle 65 €5.70 27
Casimir Ninga CHA Angers LW Mandoul 61 €2.40 26
Ismael Tajouri LBY New York City LW Bern, Switzerland 60 €2.60 26
Ali Mohamed NIG Beitar Jerusalem CM Niamey 61 €1.30 25
Ellyes Skhiri TUN Koln CDM Lunel 68 €8.10 24
Forwards
Henok Goitom ERI AIK Stockholm ST Solna, Sweden 63 €0.15 35
Yoann Touzghar TUN Troyes ST Avignon 56 €0.47 33
Hamdi Harbaoui TUN Al Arabi ST Bizerte 61 €0.72 35
Issam Jebali TUN Odense B ST Majaz al Bab 62 €0.40 28
Averages/Totals 61 €72.75 29
The squads greatest chance of a high finish rests in the hands of Midfield pair Wahbi Khazri and Geoffrey Kondogbia; The Tunisian showed flashes of brilliance for an infamously poor Sunderland side, while the holding midfielder from CAR always has plenty in the tank.
Chad’s only representative Casimir Ninga can sneak through defenses unnoticed on his day but is an archetypal pacey dribbler with end product to be desired.
Henok Goitom should lead the line, the 35 year old striker was born in Sweden but is the offspring of two Eritrean asylum seekers. In 2008-09 Goitom reached double figures in La Liga but wasn’t to make his international debut until six years later, he now captains the red sea boys but the multigenerational talent’s best years are behind him, and having never qualified for AFCON, it might be an opportunity spurned.
The back line has the potential to be all Tunisian, a side that conceded eight goals in three games in russia, albeit presumably less than Djibouti would have.
Thanks again for reading, tomorrow we’ll have a region that would make Trump spit out his disinfectant , and the land of 9 million bicycles.
submitted by Mel0n_Collie to soccer [link] [comments]


2020.04.14 00:52 GlobalBrain8 Tuku'e Yehadego (1942-1971) --The mysterious death of Tuku’e Yehadego

Tuku'e Yehadego was born in Asmara around 1942. He attended high school at Haile Selassie I secondary school, where he was a leading figure in the 1957 student strike against the imposition of Amharic as the school's language instruction. During the student demonstration in 1957 he hit a police captain with his head and was arrested.
Tuku'e was also a soccer star player, after graduation he played with the Adulis Footbal Club and in December 1959 when the team was playing in Port-Sudan, he was recruited into the Eritrea Liberation Movement (Haraka). According Iyob (1995, 101) the Eritrean team, Adulis travelled to the Sudan for national matches, and three ELM members mobilized and recruited members for the new organisation. Killion (1997, 53) also adds that Tuku'e later helped organize the ELM in Asmara. Team members, like Tuku'e played key roles in spreading the network among the youth in Asmara in 1959 and he became a key ELM organizer in Asmara where he worked for Civil Aviation Authority. Tuku’e was also recruited the Eritrean Chief Police General Tedla Ogbit who was active in the assembly intimidating members and interrogated ELM (Haraka) members in the late 1950s. However, Tedla repented later and attempted to join the Eritra resistance movement this could be after he was recruited by the ELM. Because of this development (connection) when Tuku’e was arrested for organising a demonstration against Eritrea ANNEXATION in late 1962 he was released by Police General Tedla Ogbit.
After Tuku’e released from a prison in late 1962, he fled to Sudan to continue his struggle against the annexation of Eritrea in 1962 and he worked with the ELM until its demise by the ELF in 1965. Following the liquidation of the military wing of the ELM in 1965, Turku’s joined the ELF without trying to revitalize the ELM or create a new organisation. However when Wolday Giday and Kidane Kiflu, two prominent ELF members were killed in Kassala by the ELF in 1969, he joined Osman Saleh Sabbe’s organization, in 1970
The death of Kidane caused much disillusionment among the ELF fighters. For example Tuku Yehdego who was one of the founders ofMahber Mahber Shew'ate (Union of Seven) in Asmara in 1959 became disillusioned. Tuku hated the Kiada al Ama leadership from the beginning and decided to work with the Sabbe group rather than to join Selfi Nsenat which was led by Issayas who was member of Kiada al Ama until he defected to theAla groups on 27 April 1970.
After Tuku left the ELF, he sent a letter to the Eritrean students and other former members of Haraka in the Diaspora to inform them about the unstable political situation in the ELF and the Kiada Al Ama conspiracy to kill Kidane Kiflue and other fighters. His letter might have contributed for the split among the Eritrean students in the diaspora at the meeting of General Union of Eritrean Students (GUES) in Munich in the summer of 1970. One group was, which had Dr Fitsum Ghebreselassie, Aregai Habtu, Habte Tesfamariam etc condemned the Kiada al Ama action and the other group, which had, Herui Tedla Bairu who didn't condemn the killing of Kidane Kiflue and Wlday Giday. In 1971 when Dr Fitsum Ghebreselassie was killed in the ELF, Herui Tedla Bairu was a vice-chairman in 1971. The killing of Dr Fitsum Ghebreselassie might have a connection with the summer meeting which was held in Munich . [Herui was also participated in the decision to liquidate the EPLF in1972 which caused for the death of 3, 000 fighters from both side between 1972 and 1974. This was another crime which committed when he was in the ELF leadership between 1971 and 1975.]. It is beyond the scope of this paper to explore this issue in greater depth.
When Tuku’e was working between Aden and Sudan in the early 1970s, he wrote unpublished paper under the title( ገድሊ ኤርተራ መዓስ ተጀመረ? ብመንከ? The main theme of this paper was just to make aware of the Eritrea people struggle how it was started and when. In this well written paper he made clear that the Eritrea people struggle was started in the 1940s and 1950s not in 1961. However, it was sad Tuku'e was killed before transferring his experience and knowledge to the young generation in 1971. This was presuming before 15.6.71 as he had a plan to attend the EPLF meeting on that date. For further information refer the last page of his paper ገድሊ ኤርተራ መዓስ ተጀመረ? ብመንከ?
http://www.ehrea.org/tuku.php
submitted by GlobalBrain8 to Eritrea [link] [comments]


2020.03.13 20:34 JWilson37 Eritrean dos and donts

Im an African American guy from a family thats been in the USA for over a hundred years. I am dating a eritrean girl who is the first in her family to be born in america. What are the dos and donts in eritrean dating culture?
submitted by JWilson37 to Eritrea [link] [comments]


2020.03.13 17:25 happysisyphos Gaybros, have you ever dated someone from a different culture?

I just find it so interesting and endearing when two people from different backgrounds come together and basically a cultural exchange happens.
For example, I'm Eritrean-German and it's always funny when we have family events and there's that one white German husband of my cousin sitting at the table with their biracial children, eating traditional Eritrean food and listening to everyone speaking their native language (which is kinda rude in his presence bc he's the only one that doesn't understand but the older women in our family don't speak German very well). Personally, I'm pretty much stuck dating mostly native German boys (demographically) whose culture isn't really foreign to me being born here and having adapted to that culture myself, but I always love seeing people from melting pots like America date all over the place.
So if you have, what were your respective cultures and how did you experience and navigate these cultural differences?
submitted by happysisyphos to askgaybros [link] [comments]


2020.02.21 08:22 whatsayyyu Tplf spectre and unleashing mental health patients part lll

So according to the Abiy promoter activist
https://youtu.be/YlUyNzXMuXQ
He names one so called "Ethiolove" Tplf activists from Tigrai who is a homosexual and is apparently mad that homosexuality is not instituted and apparently works with Tplf and has come in the disguise of a beggar to the assylum with many others 1 or 2 months ago before the institute decided to release these people.
So apparently around 60 have been released and set to terrorise this place.
I tried looking up this ethiolove and what I could come up with is this
https://youtu.be/Z8LeSjf_2vY
It seems to be Eritrean, though doubtful, I dont know if the dating of the post is accurate I'm sure that can be tampered with by interested sides especially one that involves governments.
That being mentioned, I've never heard of such an activist and one that is promoting homosexuality would be assumed to get some popularity as they would stand out from the rest and would have the support of such organizations.
To clarify as a disclaimer as I also keep voice logs and as I sense distortions. This is neither my logs, my voice, my pic nor political stand point.
The first promoter "activist" repeatedly urges people to protest in support of Abiy against this threat.
submitted by whatsayyyu to Poletica [link] [comments]


2020.01.30 00:39 Murcologist [DIPLOMACY] Concerning Eritrea

With the liberation of Ethiopia from the grasp of Italian Facism, the defeat of the Axis powers and reestablishment of international peace and law now some years behind us, the time has come to remove the final vestiges of the Facist legacy from East Africa. Thus allowing decisively for the economic and political reconstruction of the region, so we may leave the past behind us and enter into a future full of bountiful promise.
As part of this process His Majesty the Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, has instructed the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Aklilu Habte-Wold, to make contact with representatives of the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom. The topic of discussion? Eritrea.
Formerly a part of Italian East Africa, the fall of the Italian Facist regime has raised questions in Addis Abba as to the future of the neighbouring former-colony, with which we share numerous historical, cultural and for near-half the populace also religious ties dating back centuries. With the area currently under British administration, Ethiopia suggests a more permanent solution be found for the "Eritrean Question", thus we look to our trusted allies and the two nations which were the most involved in the fall of Facist Italy so that we might come to a satisfactory agreement for all parts involved.
Having long raised claims to the territory encompasing Eritrea, Haile Selassie suggests a solution might be found by uniting together Eritrea and Ethiopia within a union, taking the shape of either a unitary state with varying degrees of autonomy within, or a Federal structure in which Ethiopia takes responsibility of managing certain affairs for a domestic Eritrean government which would be set to maintain internal affairs, while also gaining a position on the Imperial Council. In justifying his claims the Emperor cites promises made by the United States and United Kingdom during The War and also the Eritrean Unionist Party as well as the largely pro-Ethiopian Christian populace of the southern highlands, whom are united in their hope of a future for their country united with Ethiopia and the political and economic stability that such a future is associated with.
Additionally we present the view of the Unionist Party that Eritrea remains economically incapable of supporting itself as an independent state due to the large-scale destruction it suffered from in the process of it's liberation from the Italians, a process which saw a profound toll extracted upon the populace and formerly well-developed industrial and economic facilities, the destruction of which leaves Eritrea without a stable economic base from which to draw upon in reconstruction and future development. This is a major concern of the Unionist Party and one which His Imperial Majesty shares, that lacking internal political consensus and prospect for independent development in an independent Eritrea might result in major social upheaval and unrest following a British withdrawal from the country, subsequently leaving it destitute and prone to civil conflict thus impeding the peace and stability of Eastern Africa.
Having proven itself as a modernizing and cooperative partner in Africa, as well as in aiding to fight the forces of Facism threathening world peace during the Second World War, Ethiopia stands uniquely qualified in amending the above concerns and working towards the betterment of the people of Eritrea. Our country is ready and capable of accepting the political and economic responsibilites involved with representing Eritrea and it's peoples as a constituent of the Ethiopian Empire or as a Federal partner. In observing the concerns of native Eritreans, and points put forth by ourselves we strongly suggests that the United States and United Kingdom take serious consideration of recognising an Act to bring Ethiopia and Eritrea together in a Union between kindred peoples.
submitted by Murcologist to ColdWarPowers [link] [comments]


2019.11.13 17:16 AlleyRhubarb Date night emergency!!!

So, even though I am 30, there is a man who wants to date me. Technically, we had one date at a locally-owned Fair Trade coffee shop. I wore Demi bootcut jeans, timeless Chelsea boots, and a black sweater (8 ply ethical cashmere)
I am fairly sure he knows how old I am as I mentioned a tenth year college reunion. He still texted me and asked for a second date at a fun Eritrean nightspot.
I let him know that I am a managing partner at my firm so I am not a baby lawyer AT ALL. I realized I had already worn my one non-work, non-lululemon outfit. I am a minimalist, of course. I don’t want to dress like a teenage Ariana Grande impersonator, so I went to my local Eileen Fisher.
She suggested a black dress that was way too tight. She said I am a 35-23-37 knockout from a decade of Orange Theory and Pilates/yoga and I should show it all off. I was like step back and check your baby store manager privilege. I am one vote for Hilary (I’m with her) away from OK Boomer territory.
I tried some loose black linen looks and even a olive green linen jogger pants outfit with a matching scarf but I felt like I was bringing a salad I bought at Whole Foods to a Ina Garten potluck.
How do I dress ethically and not like I am trying to be young anymore? Should I bare my arms? They’re like Jennifer Anniston arms, I think, but I’m worried I’ll come off more Reese Witherspoon.
The date is now eight hours away but I took a mental health day so I can buy whatever you all suggest as long as it is black, beige, or white.
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2019.09.25 00:11 derweenie November 1970

1: Club Cinq-Sept fire in Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, France, kills 146 / Three Pakistanis and a Polish Deputy Foreign Minister, Zygfryd Wolniak [pl], are killed at Karachi airport, Pakistan.
3: Democrats sweep the U.S. Congressional midterm elections; Ronald Reagan is reelected governor of California; Jimmy Carter is elected governor of Georgia / Salvador Allende takes office as president of Chile.
4: Vietnam War – The United States turns control of the air base in the Mekong Delta to South Vietnam / Social workers in Los Angeles take custody of Genie, a girl who had been kept in solitary confinement since her birth.
5: Vietnam War - The United States Military Assistance Command in Vietnam reports the lowest weekly American soldier death toll in five years (24 soldiers die that week, which is the fifth consecutive week the death toll is below 50; 431 are reported wounded that week, however).
8: Egypt, Libya and Sudan announce their intentions to form a federation / Tom Dempsey, who was born with a deformed right foot and right hand, sets a National Football League record by kicking a 63-yard field goal to lift the New Orleans Saints to a 19–17 victory over the Detroit Lions at Tulane Stadium / The British comedy television series, The Goodies debuts on BBC Two.
9: The Soviet Union launches Luna 17 / Vietnam War - The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6–3 not to hear a case by the state of Massachusetts, about the constitutionality of a state law granting Massachusetts residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.
10: Vietnam War – For the first time in five years, an entire week ends with no reports of United States combat fatalities in Southeast Asia.
12: Soviet author Andrei Amalrik is sentenced to three years for 'anti-Soviet' writings.
13: Hafez al-Assad comes to power in Syria, following a military coup within the Ba'ath Party / 1970 Bhola cyclone - A 120-mph (193 km/h) tropical cyclone hits the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), killing an estimated 500,000 people (considered the 20th century's worst cyclone disaster). It gives rise to the temporary island of New Moore / South Talpatti.
14: Southern Airways Flight 932 crashes in Wayne County, West Virginia; all 75 on board, including 37 players and 5 coaches from the Marshall University football team, are killed / The Soviet Union enters the ICAO, making Russian the fourth official language of the organization.
16: The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar flies for the first time.
17: Vietnam War - Lieutenant William Calley goes on trial for the My Lai Massacre / Luna Programme - The Soviet Union lands Lunokhod 1 on Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) on the Moon. This is the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world, and is released by the orbiting Luna 17 spacecraft.
18: U.S. President Richard Nixon asks the U.S. Congress for US$155 million in supplemental aid for the Cambodian government (US$85 million is for military assistance to prevent the overthrow of the government of Premier Lon Nol by the Khmer Rouge and North Vietnam) / The United Nations Security Council demands that no government recognize Rhodesia.
19: European Economic Community prime ministers meet in Munich.
20: The Miss World 1970 beauty pageant, hosted by Bob Hope at the Royal Albert Hall, London is disrupted by Women's Liberation protesters. Earlier on the same evening a bomb is placed under a BBC outside broadcast vehicle by The Angry Brigade, in protest at the entry of separate black and white contestants by South Africa.
21: Syrian Prime Minister Hafez al-Assad forms a new government but retains the post of defense minister / In Ethiopia, the Eritrean Liberation Front kills an Ethiopian general / Vietnam War – Operation Ivory Coast: A joint Air Force and Army team raids the Sơn Tây prison camp in an attempt to free American POWs thought to be held there (no Americans are killed, but the prisoners have already moved to another camp; all U.S. POWs are moved to a handful of central prison complexes as a result of this raid) / 1970 Australian Senate Election - The Liberal/Country Coalition Government led by Prime Minister John Gorton and the Labor Party led by Gough Whitlam each ended up with 26 seats; both suffering a swing against them. The Democratic Labor Party won an additional seat and held the balance of power in the Senate. To date, this was the last occasion where a Senate election was held without an accompanying House Of Representatives election.
22: Guinean president Ahmed Sékou Touré accuses Portugal of an attack when hundreds of mercenaries land near the capital Conakry.
23–24: The Guinean army repels the landing attempts.
23: Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! makes its network TV debut, when CBS telecasts the 1955 film version as a three-hour Thanksgiving special / The American Indian Movement seizes a replica of the Mayflower in Boston.
25–29: A U.N. delegation arrives to investigate the Guinea situation.
25: In Tokyo, author and Tatenokai militia leader Yukio Mishima and his followers take over the headquarters of the Japan Self-Defense Forces in an attempted coup d'état. After Mishima's speech fails to sway public opinion towards his right-wing political beliefs, including restoration of the powers of the Emperor, he commits seppuku (public ritual suicide).
26: East Pakistan leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman accuses the central government of negligence in catastrophe relief / Pope Paul VI begins an Asian tour.
27: Bolivian artist Benjamin Mendoza tries to assassinate Pope Paul VI during his visit in Manila.
28: The Montréal Alouettes defeated the Calgary Stampeders to become victors in the 58th Grey Cup 23–10.
30: British Caledonian Airways Ltd. (BCal) is formed.
submitted by derweenie to illumonopoli [link] [comments]


2019.09.16 22:41 stroke_bot mealmen

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submitted by stroke_bot to nullthworldproblems [link] [comments]


2019.07.30 16:02 autotldr German prosecutors seek motive in fatal train pushing

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 49%. (I'm a bot)
German authorities are still trying to determine the motive of a man suspected of pushing an 8-year-old boy and his mother in front of a train at Frankfurt's main station, killing the boy, and will assess whether he is mentally ill, prosecutors said Tuesday.
Interested in Germany? Add Germany as an interest to stay up to date on the latest Germany news, video, and analysis from ABC News.
The suspect, a 40-year-old Eritrean citizen who lived in neighboring Switzerland, hasn't yet given any information on a possible motive, said Nadja Niesen, a spokeswoman for prosecutors in Frankfurt.
The mother and then the boy were pushed onto the tracks as a high-speed ICE train was pulling into the Frankfurt station, one of Germany's busiest, on Monday morning.
The 40-year-old mother managed to escape by getting out of the train's way, but the boy was run over by the train and suffered fatal injuries.
The suspect, believed to be a father of three who has lived in Switzerland since 2006, told investigators that he took a train to Frankfurt from the Swiss city of Basel a few days ago.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: Frankfurt#1 train#2 Germany#3 suspect#4 boy#5
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2019.07.02 01:07 interfan1999 The story of Luciano Vassallo, the italian-eritrean player who helped Ethiopia winning their only AFCON

Luciano Vassallo was born in 1935 in Asmara, Italian Eritrea, from an italian father and a local eritrean mother.
When he was young he had to abandon school because he was discriminated for being mixed by both italians and eritreans.
He started playing football for local teams in Asmara and his talent was immediately noticed. He signed with Cotton FC of Dire Dawa, where he won the Ethiopian Championship in 1960, 1962, 1963 and 1965. Later he also joined Saint-George SA of Addis Abeba (the most famous Ethiopian team) and won the League in 1966, 1967, 1968 and 1971.
With his brother Italo, Luciano was part of the 1962 AFCON campaign when Ethiopia won their only trophy to date, as the team captain. Luciano scored 2 goals in the semifinal against Tunisia and was named player of the tournament, the only Ethiopian to claim the award.
But in the 1970s he was jailed by the dictator Mengitsu and accused of being a western colonialists' spy just because he had italian roots. Luckily he was able to escape to Italy, after a difficult trip started from Djibouti.
When took refuge in Italy, in 1978 he obtained the Italian citizenship and owned a mechanic car shop. Later he founded in Rome a school for young footballers: the Olimpia Ostia. After some years living in Rome, he even published a book about his life, titled Mamma, ecco I soldi (Mum, here's the money). He still lives in Rome nowadays.
At the end of his career, he scored 90 goals in 104 matches for Ethiopia.
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2019.04.20 01:08 Fruity-Tree [Battle] The Sudanese Conflict

The Sudanese Conflict

Conflict Map: here
Sudan splinters into yet another conflict, what was once thought to be a calming political environment has erupted into tensions not seen in years. The situation of Sudan has not gone unnoticed in the international community, with various players around the world all trying to act quickly to secure their piece of the pie.
Total Civilian Deaths: 6,341 Total Civilians Displaced : 43,716
Egyption Nile Front
Rebel Forces against the government launched a major attack along the Nile from the Egyptian border. Sudanese troops scattered and not immediately near to respond quickly ceded land to their rapid advance. However the narrow possibilities for attack have provided a stiff resistance as further Sudanese troops arrived to reinforce and prevent further loss of land. Over the course of 5 days the Rebels continued to make gains, although significantly smaller than before the Sudanese reinforcement. These rebels appear to fight with the greatest vigor & strength, lacking not oil, munitions, nor fresh bodies to throw against the Sudanese forces. Intense clashes continued along the Nile as they slowly push south, with Sudanese forces desperately trying to dig in and stop the advance.
There are rumours of air support for the rebels from a leaked cellphone footage. It appears to show a jet of some sort bombing Sudanese positions. It is unclear when, where, and the video remains unverified, but highly circulated.
It is not without sacrifice for the Rebels, many of the captured towns are without power, limited supplied of water infrastructure, and the wounded are heavily mounting. The Rebels are taking high casualties estimated to be upwards of ~600, with the loss of numerous but unconfirmed small trucks.
Casualties
Name Quantity Notes
Personnel 257 Fire-Fights/Mortar
T-72 Tank 9 Small Rocket Fire
M113 APC 13 Rocket & Small arms
Mig-21 1 Mechanical fault
Mil-Mi-24 1 Small arms fire
Turkish Troops Stand their Ground
Turkish troops stationed & reinforced in their base outside of the Port of Sudan have held true to their word. At 08:13 on a saturday a medium cargo vessel flying the Saudi flag entered within sight of a smaller Turkish outpost. The Turks made attempts to hail the vessel , and ordered that it cease its advance towards the Sudanese coastline. In the Previous two weeks Saudi backed rebels had made strong gains along the coast south of their position, with their intel leading them to conclude shipments are arms coming from Saudi flagged cargo vessels.
08:21 Turkish troops fired warning shots at the vessel as it approached closer within range, the vessel failed to establish radio contact, and failed to yield its course. At 08:41 the Turkish troops opened fire directly at the vessel, striking the vessel a total of 6 times, twice in the stern, and a further 4 times in the bow. The vessel quickly caught fire, and begun to burn. Shortly after the lifeboats were launched the vessel exploded in a grand boom, that could be heard for nearly 100km away. The vessel appeared to explode with a great vigor, much stronger than that of a normal vessel, engine, or oil, almost as if the vessel had been filled to the brim with munitions.
One lifeboat was sunk in the explosion following the strike. The other was disabled and drifted to shore, where a platoon of Turkish troops was there to meet the crew. The Captain, 2nd Mate, and 7 sailors have been captured, and are being held by Turkish Forces just outside the Port of Sudan.
Saudi Rebels Consolidate
Rebels that are largely considered to be Saudi backed have consolidated their grounds in two major pockets of control. The first being along the Eritrean border, and the second largely made up of recent defection along the coast south of the Port of Sudan. These Rebels forces constitute the most significant fighting to occur within the country, and signal to the world the potential of a major middle eastern war.
Rebels in the small coastal city of Suakin have filled their ranks with recent defections and surged to secure neighbouring towns & villages. Particularly alarming is the close proximity to Turkish deployed troops in the north, and the direct influence by Saudi Arabia with daily supply runs via Saudi flagged cargo vessels. These rebels have made a bloody assault along the main road in an attempt to link with the much large pocket of fellow rebels to the south. Along the way entire villages who oppose their occupation have been wiped out by Mortar & artillery fire.
An estimated ~40 rebel Casualties.
Casualties
Name Quantity Notes
Personnel 172 Fire Fights
T-72 Tank 2 Rocket Fire
M113 APC 1 Small arms
M-29 2 Unknown
Gihad Patrol Boat 3 Rocket & Sabotage
The Rebels in the Southern Pocket have seen the most intense fighting as Sudanese forces focus their attempts here, and directly this have resulted in the largest theatre operations to date in Sudan. Saudi rebels in this pocket have lost a minor amount of territory, although they’ve inflicted a high cost for Sudanese Forces. The Rebels appear to be well equipped, and heavily dug in, making each and every victor a hard won battle.
Reports suggest that the Eritrean border has become semi-fluid allowing for supplies & munitions to pass freely through, although Eritrean government officials deny this report & independent verification has been unable to prove this. Beyond the fatal casualties the rebels have fought back using an intensive barrage of Mortar shells, resulting in over 700 injured Sundanese personnel and countless civilian deaths. Sudanese forces have inflicted only minor casualties against the rebels due to their well supplied lines, and hardened positions, estimated ~125 rebel casualties.
Casualties
Name Quantity Notes
Personnel 413 Fire Fights/MortaArtillery
T-72 Tank 4 Rocket Fire
M113 APC 1 Small Arms
Al-Zubair Tank 2 Technical Faults
Mil-Mi 24 2 small arms & rocket
Mig-21 2 Rocket Fire
The unknown southern lands
The Kordofan rebels is the southern reaches of Sudan have been split into two pockets. Thanks to their disorganisation they’ve lost a small land bridge connecting the two main pockets.
Heavy clashes are ongoing in, and around Er Rahad as Kordofan rebels make an attempt to secure the road east towards the smaller pocket of Kardofan rebels. This includes indiscriminate mortar & artillery strikes on the town, and night raids at small villages in the surrounding countryside. The Sudanese troops within the city have managed to hold off from having been completely overrun, but their supplies are drawing short, and there has been yet an effort to resupply their munitions and supplies.
Casualties
Name Quantity Notes
Personnel 143 Mostly Mortar & Artillery
T-72 Tank 3 Small arms fire, overrun & torched
M113 APC 4 rocket attack
The Darfur Rebels have consolidated their grounds, assuming control over a large swatch of sparsely populated desert areas. Making matters worse there is limited access points, making their lands easier to secure, and harder to resecure. It is largely unknown at this point what their exact composition is, and they appear to make little to no major offensive actions.
Casualties
Name Quantity Notes
Personnel 17 Fire-fights
All Casualties listed above are that of Sudan Government Forces Unless otherwise stated
[M] The Mod-Team reserves the right to adjust numbers or events as we see fit.
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2019.03.27 23:14 Christi-Cat [EVENT] Eritrean Defence Force Reforms 2021.

The National Unity council has put forth a plan for large scale reform to the Eritrean Defence Force, with the intention of scaling the size of the force down and professionalizing it further.
The question of the National Service
The National Service is both a blessing and a curse upon Eritrea. On the one hand it has provided the armed forces with a steady stream of manpower and subsequently labor for national projects, but it came at the cost of men in the Agricultural workforce and a vast flight of people from the country attempting to escape the dreadful conditions in Eritrea. The reform bill does not abolish the Draft, rather it shortens the length to 18 months, rather than the 3 official years and almost perpetual previous service, and places all men into a reserve, of which 36,000 will be active.
Downscaling and re-organisation
On the whole, the Eritrean Army especially, is to be scaled down in size. The active army will be reduced from its previous number of 320,000 to 75,000. A process of re-organization is to begin, estimated to take 5 or so years. The army will be organized into 6 Independent Infantry Brigades of 1,500 men and 4 Divisions of 9,000. There will be a further 2 Mechanized Brigades, consistent of our Armored Vehicles and Infantry support, a specialism Commando Brigade (pre-existent) of 2,000 men and the Presidential Guard, 2 Brigades of Elite troops consistent of 2,000 men each again. The reduction in the size of our armed forces, while seeing some growth in the budget, means that the average wage of an infantryman can be raised substantially, along with wage growth amongst the Officers.
Equipment and facilities revamp
The plan explains the decision to dramatically improve the quality of Eritrean Equipment and military facilities, although this will be a longer term project. The long term modernization of Barrack's, training facilities, bases and vehicles/Equipment. Although it does not mention a specific date, it does recommend that such upgrades are completed by 2035 at the very latest.
Training and internal deployments
Additional training to improve the Quality of our forces is also to be sought, the adoption of modern conventional tactics and training methods will be the foundation of the Eritrean Defence force in future. Internal deployments are largely to be to the major cities in the country, as shown in the following Graphic The major centers will remain Asmara and the major coastal cities of Assab and Massawa.
[M] Military sheet here https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1_fI76XuXgN-F9ub23ACwyoHGJjW1LgiBeyfnK-ZBu5I/edit?usp=sharing
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